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Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy – FAQ

Most common questions about HBOT

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy – Frequently asked question

What is hyperbaric oxygen therapy? What is a pressure chamber? How is HBOT administered?

Pressure chambers are cabins that allow patients to breathe in oxygen under pressure. There are two types of pressure chambers, single and multi-person. In single-person pressure chambers, the pressure is usually increased by giving pressurized oxygen, while in a multi-person pressure chamber, air is pressed in to increase the pressure. In single-person pressure rooms, patients breathe the oxygen in the cabin directly, while in multi-person pressure rooms, patients breathe oxygen through a mask. In our country, a multi-person press room is generally used. On the sides of the pressure chamber, there are windows called portholes for observing the inside from the outside and the outside from the inside. Pressure chambers are manufactured according to some national and international standards due to the presence of people inside. There are seats in the pressure chamber for the patients to sit comfortably. Patients on a stretcher can also be treated while lying down. Having more than one patient inside is an advantage for people with a fear of confined spaces. More importantly, a healthcare professional can accompany the patients during the treatment in multi-person pressure rooms. During HBOT, the majority of patients breathe 100% oxygen under 2-2.5 times the atmospheric pressure we normally live in. Due to the possible side effects of oxygen, air breaks are given at certain intervals. In order to get the desired level of oxygen, the mask or headgear given to the patients should be worn properly. Thanks to the communication equipment of the pressure chambers, it is possible to constantly communicate with the patients during HBOT. Some pressure rooms have equipment where patients can listen to music and watch television. Due to the high pressure in the pressure chamber, and therefore the oxygen partial pressure, some safety precautions must be taken. Patients who will see HBOT are also informed about safety precautions. There is a control panel outside the pressure chamber. Treatment is administered from this panel. The operator using the pressure chamber and the health personnel who will accompany the patients inside are the personnel who have received special training in this regard. In accordance with the relevant legislation in our country, HBOT applications should be performed by Underwater Medicine and Hyperbaric Medicine Specialists. Patients who will see HBOT are also informed about safety precautions. There is a control panel outside the pressure chamber. Treatment is administered from this panel. The operator using the pressure chamber and the health personnel who will accompany the patients inside are the personnel who have received special training in this regard. In accordance with the relevant legislation in our country, HBOT applications should be performed by Underwater Medicine and Hyperbaric Medicine Specialists. Patients who will see HBOT are also informed about safety precautions. There is a control panel outside the pressure chamber. Treatment is administered from this panel. The operator using the pressure chamber and the health personnel who will accompany the patients inside are the personnel who have received special training in this regard. In accordance with the relevant legislation in our country, HBOT applications should be performed by Underwater Medicine and Hyperbaric Medicine Specialists.

What do patients feel during treatment?
In the first minutes of the treatment, called “diving”, patients feel the pressure increase in their ears, just as they feel during the descent on an airplane journey or descending from high mountains. Patients are told how to equalize the pressure in their ears during increased pressure. This is usually accomplished by simply swallowing, or by closing the nose and blowing air into the nose. This process is only done during the dive, until the treatment pressure is reached. HBOT can be applied to patients of all ages. Patients enter the pressure chamber with special cotton clothes given to them.

When the pressure starts to rise at the beginning of the treatment, there may be some temperature rise inside the pressure chamber. During treatment, the temperature returns to normal room temperature. At the end of the treatment, the temperature drops a little while the pressure is reduced. Patients do not feel the pressure increase as if they are being compressed or as if there is a heavy load on them. At first, using a mask or headgear may seem a little strange to patients, but they get used to it in a short time

How long does the treatment take?
Although an HBOT session varies according to the disease and the patient, it usually takes 2-2.5 hours. Most of the patients receive treatment once a day. However, in some emergencies, the number of daily sessions can be up to four. The total number of sessions varies according to the disease.
Are there any side effects of the treatment?
The most common side effect is the effect of pressure change on the ears and sinuses. This situation is not dangerous and can be avoided by learning pressure equalization methods. Other side effects are very rare and can be listed as oxygen poisoning, claustrophobia (fear of being in a closed place) and temporary myopia. Generally, side effects are not serious.

a) Claustrophobia: Most patients do not have a problem in the pressure chamber. Some patients may take some getting used to. Few patients hesitate to enter the compression chamber and refuse treatment. In cases where press room treatment is of vital importance, treatment can be performed by giving the patient some relaxing drugs.

b) Ear and sinus problems: Some people have problems during pressure changes between the ear and sinuses and the external environment, trained personnel are taught how to solve this problem. When patients feel discomfort during pressure increase, they should inform the assistant inside or the operator outside. If necessary, the problem is tried to be solved by stopping the pressure increase or reducing the pressure. Sometimes it may be necessary to use medication for easy equalization.

c) Lungs: In patients receiving HBOT treatment for a very long time, oxygen may affect the lungs and cause some complaints. Patients may experience symptoms such as burning in the trachea, dryness, shortness of breath, and dry cough. If such symptoms occur, the treatment is interrupted and these complaints disappear in a short time to a large extent. These effects are very rare in the current HBOT protocols.

d) Brain: Oxygen poisoning in the central nervous system can be seen in HBOT applications where the treatment pressure is high. This situation is very rare. When central nervous system oxygen poisoning is seen, patients may develop restlessness, irritability, nausea-vomiting, tinnitus, twitching, numbness, tingling, and seizures in advanced stages, especially in the facial muscles. Oxygen breathing should be interrupted as soon as any of these symptoms appear. Patients return to normal after a short time when oxygen breathing is interrupted.

e) Eyes: Myopia (distance vision loss) may be seen in patients who have seen HBOT for a very long time. This situation is temporary, vision returns to normal shortly after treatment is stopped.

f) Fire: There is a risk of fire as the partial pressure of oxygen in the pressure chamber is high. Therefore, patients are not allowed to enter the room with anything that may cause sparks. Patients should be informed about the precautions to be taken against fire before the treatment. HBOT treatment is extremely safe if safety precautions are followed.

How does HBOT work?
During HBOT, a high percentage of oxygen dissolves in all body fluids of patients. Thanks to the dissolved oxygen in the blood and body fluids, it sends oxygen to the tissues that cannot get enough oxygen, and provides the healing of diseases that occur due to oxygen deficiency. It creates an environment in which bacteria that cause certain diseases cannot survive. It helps to reduce edema (swelling) in the tissues. Contributes to the healing of wounds that do not heal due to oxygen deficiency. It contributes to the fight against infection.
In which diseases is HBOT used?
In the regulation on hyperbaric oxygen therapy published by the TR Ministry of Health on August 1, 2001, the following diseases were reported as HBOT indications. However, there are also diseases that are not in this list, such as aseptic necrosis, for which HBOT is applied.

Decompression sickness (highlight)

    • Air and gas embolism
    • Carbon monoxide, cyanide poisoning, acute smoke inhalation,
    • gas gangrene
    • Necrotizing infections of soft tissue (subcutaneous, muscle, fascia, fascia)
    • Crush injuries, compartment syndrome and other acute traumatic ischemias.
    • Conditions where wound healing is delayed (diabetic and non-diabetic)
    • Chronic refractory osteomyelitis
    • excessive blood loss
    • radiation necroses
    • Suspicious skin flaps and grafts
    • thermal burns
    • brain abscess
    • anoxic encephalopathy
    • sudden hearing loss
    • retinal ether occlusion
    • Acute osteomyelitis of skull bones, sternum and vertebrae
What is the potential role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy?
The effect of hyperbaric oxygen is: (1) Oxygen can be quickly dissolved in the blood, the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood can be increased, the blood oxygen content can be increased by more than 14 times, and it can penetrate deep into the deep tissue cells to improve the hypoxic state of tissues and organs. (2) Improve microcirculation and promote the early establishment of collateral circulation; (3) Promote the softening and disappearance of thromboembolism, recanalize blocked blood vessels, and improve the ischemic state of the tissue; (4) Reduce and eliminate tissue edema, including Control brain edema and reduce intracranial pressure; (5) Improve the sensitivity of tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy; (6) Hyperbaric oxygen is also a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that can inhibit the growth of bacteria (especially anaerobic bacteria); ( 7) Hyperbaric oxygen can also compress the gas imprisoned in the body and promote its absorption and elimination, thereby treating gas embolism and decompression sickness. (8) Health care function, regularly giving the human body sufficient oxygen supply, and periodically correcting the hypoxia and ischemia state of tissue cells, which can delay and/or reduce the speed and number of cell death, so as to achieve the purpose of prolonging life.
What are the precautions for receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy?
To accept hyperbaric oxygen therapy, at least the following points must be noted: (1) Before entering the cabin, the urine should be emptied, and no chemical fiber clothing should be worn; (2) The use of hair oil, hair fixative, lipstick, facial lotion, nail polish, etc. Grease cosmetics; (3) Try not to perform hyperbaric oxygen therapy immediately after a full meal, and do not eat gas-producing food before entering the cabin; (4) It is strictly forbidden to bring in fire and other flammable and explosive items; (5) Do not bring pens and watches , bag, BP machine, MP3, MP4, mobile phone and electric toys and other sundries; (6) in the process of adding and decompressing, should do a good job of regulating the pressure of the Eustachian tube, such as pinching the nose, inflating, swallowing, chewing, etc. If the earache cannot be eliminated, report it to the cabin operator immediately; (7) Be familiar with the use of oxygen inhalation masks and communication devices; (8) If any discomfort occurs during treatment, report it in time and follow the treatment of the medical staff; (9) Keep the cabin Clean and tidy inside, do not spit and throw debris; (10) Do not make noise in the cabin, and do not manipulate the equipment in the cabin without authorization to ensure safe treatment; (11) During the decompression process, it is strictly forbidden to hold your breath.
Why do some people experience earaches when applying pressure? How to deal with it?
During hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the environment in which the patient is placed changes from normal pressure to high pressure, and the body needs to balance with the gradually increasing environmental pressure. The most sensitive parts of the body to respond to elevated pressure are the pharyngeal end of the Eustachian tube and the ear tympanic chamber. Some patients will cause relative negative pressure in the tympanic cavity due to the increase of the pressure in the cabin during pressurization, the difficulty in opening the pharyngeal end of the Eustachian tube after being compressed, and the compression of the gas volume in the middle ear tympanic cavity. produce ear pain.

In order to prevent earache, the patient should learn the pressure-regulating action of opening the Eustachian tube before entering the cabin. The main methods of pressure regulation are: (1) chewing; (2) swallowing; (3) pinch nose and close mouth to inhale; (4) open mouth and yawn.

After pressure, if you feel the ear is full and unsuitable, open the Eustachian tube immediately to keep the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the tympanic membrane balanced. If you have earache, report it to the medical staff immediately. This ear discomfort or even earache is similar to the ear sensation caused by flying. Not everyone will appear, usually after two or three days will adapt.

Why can't cold patients enter the cabin for treatment?
In cold patients, viruses or bacteria have violated the upper respiratory tract, causing inflammatory changes in the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, especially the nasal and pharyngeal mucosa, to extend to the mouth of the Eustachian tube, causing mucosal congestion and edema, increased secretions, and poor Eustachian tube ventilation function. Pressure and/or decompression can easily cause discomfort such as ear fullness, ear pain, and in severe cases, middle ear barotrauma. In addition, the large-scale pressurized cabin is a group treatment. If a cold patient enters the cabin, it is easy to cause cross-infection, so the cold patient is generally not treated in the cabin.
Why is it better to treat sudden deafness earlier with hyperbaric oxygen?
Hyperbaric oxygen can rapidly increase the physical dissolution of oxygen in the blood, improve blood oxygen tension, blood oxygen diffusion speed and diffusion distance. The larger the gas partial pressure difference, the faster the diffusion speed and the longer the diffusion distance, so the more oxygen-deficient part is, the more oxygen diffuses to the place under hyperbaric oxygen. The pathophysiological basis of sudden deafness is inner ear hypoxia, so supplying sufficient oxygen early and effectively can quickly improve the temporary damage of inner ear hair cells caused by hypoxia, and promote the recovery of damaged and reversible hair cells.
What kind of deafness is hyperbaric oxygen effective for?
Hyperbaric oxygen is effective in early treatment of sudden deafness. If hyperbaric oxygen therapy is received within one week after the onset of the disease, the effective rate can reach 75-95%, and the effective rate of hyperbaric oxygen therapy within two weeks is 50-76%. %. For sensorineural deafness, due to different etiologies and course of disease, the curative effect is different; for congenital deafness and conduction deafness (not hearing nerve damage), hyperbaric oxygen therapy is ineffective.
Why do some people feel fatigued during hyperbaric oxygen therapy?
Because the patient is in the process of receiving hyperbaric oxygen, the body’s metabolism is vigorous, the oxidation process in the body is accelerated, and the oxygen consumption increases. Therefore, individual patients may feel fatigued during hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In addition, in a high-pressure environment, the gas density increases, the breathing resistance increases, and the breathing movement increases after inhaling hyperbaric oxygen, and the respiratory muscles are prone to fatigue, especially for some elderly and infirm people, the fatigue may be more obvious. This phenomenon disappears within 1-2 weeks after weaning from hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Why are occupants not allowed to carry lighters, matches, watches and other items?
The oxygen concentration in the cabin may increase during hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Oxygen has combustion properties. Once the ignition source is encountered and combustible substances are present at the same time, it can lead to burning with unimaginable consequences. Therefore, it is strictly forbidden for patients to bring lighters, matches and other fires into the cabin to ensure the safety of treatment; mobile phones, BP machines, MP3, MP4 and electric toys may also generate sparks and become ignition sources. In addition, due to the change of air pressure, gas density, temperature and humidity in the hyperbaric oxygen chamber, the watch hairspring will be damaged and the running time will be inaccurate or stopped, and the ink in the pen tank will overflow when the pen is decompressed, so the above items cannot be brought. into the cabin.
Why do you need to rest in the middle when wearing a mask to inhale oxygen?
In order to prevent the occurrence of oxygen poisoning, in addition to strictly controlling the pressure of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to prevent the pressure from being too high and the residence time being too long, intermittent oxygen supply is usually used to prevent the occurrence of oxygen poisoning. Therefore, after continuous oxygen inhalation for a period of time, it is necessary to Take off the oxygen supply mask to rest for a period of time, breathe the compressed air in the chamber, and then wear the oxygen supply mask to inhale oxygen. General clinical treatment usually adopts oxygen inhalation for 20 to 40 minutes each time, and then inhalation of air for 5 to 10 minutes before inhalation of oxygen. The total duration of oxygen inhalation is 60 to 80 minutes.
When inhaling oxygen with an oxygen mask in the cabin, is it better to use the mouth or the nose?
In general, it is better to breathe through the nose, because it can avoid the direct stimulation of the trachea and bronchi by oxygen, and play a humidifying effect; for patients with small vital capacity, mouth breathing can be used to increase the inspiratory pressure.
When inhaling oxygen in the cabin, is it better to take as many breaths as possible?
The patient should maintain the original breathing rate when taking oxygen in the cabin, and the breathing rate can be deepened but not accelerated. Accelerating breathing because the gas in the physiological dead space cannot be effectively excreted from the body, on the one hand, the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the body can be further increased, and on the other hand, the oxygen concentration in the physiological dead space will relatively decrease, which is not conducive to the formation of the hyperbaric oxygen effect. Therefore, the argument that more breaths is better is unfounded. On the contrary, hyperventilation can have adverse effects on the body.
Why is fog sometimes generated during decompression?
During decompression, the temperature in the cabin drops due to the heat absorbed by the air expansion. When the temperature reaches the fog point, fog will appear in the cabin, which is a normal physical phenomenon.
What should I pay attention to when wearing a mask to inhale oxygen?
During decompression, as the air expands and absorbs heat, the cabin temperature decreases. Therefore, it is necessary to wear clothes to keep warm and avoid exposed parts as much as possible. It is strictly forbidden to walk around and exercise in the cabin, and do not lean any part of the body against the metal bulkhead, so as to avoid vasoconstriction due to local skin cooling, which will affect the desaturation of nitrogen, resulting in local skin itching or muscle and joint pain. Other symptoms, severe cases can cause decompression sickness.
What should patients pay attention to during decompression?
During decompression, as the air expands and absorbs heat, the cabin temperature decreases. Therefore, it is necessary to wear clothes to keep warm and avoid exposed parts as much as possible. It is strictly forbidden to walk around and exercise in the cabin, and do not lean any part of the body against the metal bulkhead, so as to avoid vasoconstriction due to local skin cooling, which will affect the desaturation of nitrogen, resulting in local skin itching or muscle and joint pain. Other symptoms, severe cases can cause decompression sickness.
Why can't you hold your breath during decompression?
In the process of decompression, you should breathe naturally, and it is absolutely not allowed to hold your breath, because when you hold your breath, the expanded gas in the lungs cannot be discharged through the respiratory tract. Once the intrapulmonary pressure rises and exceeds the external environmental pressure by 80-100 mm Hg, the lungs Tissue is prone to damage, and even pneumothorax or pulmonary barotrauma may occur in severe cases, so it is absolutely impossible to hold your breath during decompression.
What should be paid attention to in nursing care of patients with catheters under hyperbaric oxygen?
When the patient enters the cabin with the catheter, pay attention to keep the pipe unobstructed and fix the catheter properly in the cabin. The escorts should be familiar with the direction and function of the pipeline, and pay attention to observe the nature, color and quantity of the drainage to prevent backflow. At the beginning of decompression, all drainage tubes should be opened, and secretions should be sucked out in time to keep the drainage smooth, so as to avoid pressure injury or even necrosis of soft tissue caused by air expansion during decompression.
What is the significance of oxygen in life activities?
Oxygen is an indispensable substance in human life activities, and oxygen inhalation is the key link for the human body to obtain life energy. People can go days without food, but if they don’t breathe air (oxygen), they will die in just a few minutes. The existence of life must be constantly metabolized, and humans need oxygen for aerobic metabolism to obtain energy. Problems with aerobic metabolism in any part can lead to disease. If the human body cannot take in enough oxygen due to its own physiological and pathological reasons, it will be hypoxic. Under the condition of hypoxia, the intermediate process of cellular energy metabolism is slowed down, the activity of biological enzymes is also inhibited, the efficiency of energy generation is reduced, the production is reduced, resulting in metabolic disorders, and finally leads to a series of pathological changes in tissues and organs, even life-threatening.
What are the causes of systemic hypoxia?
  • Hyperventilation hypoxia

Drowning, hanging, electric shock, altitude sickness, deep tunnel or deep mine operation, anesthesia accident, pulmonary encephalopathy, infection and toxic breathing disorder, etc.

  • Circulatory obstructive hypoxia

Various shocks, cardiac arrest due to various causes, acute peripheral circulatory failure, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance, heart failure, congenital heart disease, tetralogy of Faroe, patent ductus arteriosus, atrial and ventricular septal defect , myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy.

  • Tissue toxicity and hypoxia

Cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrite, carbon tetrachloride, phosgene, organic phosphorus, alcohol, methanol poisoning. (People working in toxic envirare common: gas pipeline installation, production and use of harmful paint, glue, paint, etc.).

  • Anemia or abnormal blood component hypoxia

Acute massive blood loss, various types of severe anemia, carbon monoxide poisoning, nitrobenzene poisoning, aniline poisoning, certain drug-induced methemoglobinemia, acute dehydration and alkalosis.

What are the causes of local hypoxia?
Various vascular diseases: vasculitis, phlebitis, arteritis, Raynaud’s disease, etc.

Cerebrovascular disease: insufficient blood supply to the brain, cerebral vasospasm, cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral arteriosclerosis, etc.

Traumatic brain injury: brain contusion, brain stem injury, cerebral hematoma.

Ischemic ulcers (diabetic gangrene), bedsores, wound infections, etc.

Five sense diseases: sudden deafness, Meniere’s disease, vertigo, ischemic eye disease, periodontal disease.

Local trauma: non-healing wound, crush injury, postoperative microcirculation disturbance, replantation of amputated limbs (toes, fingers), skin flap transplantation, local burns, frostbite.

Infectious diseases: gangrene of limbs, poisoning, allergic vascular disease.

Is it harmful for normal people to breathe hyperbaric oxygen?
As long as the treatment plan is properly selected, hyperbaric oxygen will not cause harm to people. In clinical work, doctors and family members often enter the cabin to accompany patients to treat together. Although some patients’ family members do not take oxygen, under high pressure, some of the accompanying guests’ chronic diseases are relieved or even cured unknowingly. The reason is that the partial pressure of oxygen in the air in the oxygen cabin is usually more than double that outside the cabin.
Are there similarities between hyperbaric oxygen and drug therapy for promoting blood circulation and removing stasis?
We all know that promoting blood circulation and removing stasis, expanding blood vessels, and reducing blood viscosity are commonly used clinical treatments. Salvia miltiorrhiza, Chuanxiong, and nimodipine are usually used to achieve therapeutic effects. In the final analysis, the purpose is to get more and smoother blood supply to the lesion, and the main function of blood is to transport oxygen, so the ultimate goal is to solve the problem of oxygen supply. Hyperbaric oxygen directly supplies oxygen to the tissues, avoiding the chemical reaction caused by drugs to activate blood and remove stasis, and is the best oxygen supply method that cannot be replaced by other means. Therefore, the application of hyperbaric oxygen should have broad prospects.
What is oxygen therapy and oxygen health care?
Generally speaking, it is used to correct pathological hypoxia as an adjuvant therapy for diseases, called oxygen therapy. Among them, those used for critically ill patients and accident victims are called emergency oxygen delivery; they are used to supplement the physiological hypoxia of heavy mental workers, the elderly, pregnant women and patients in convalescence of chronic diseases, as well as to supplement various environmental hypoxia. The prevention of hypoxia is called oxygen health care. Oxygen therapy and oxygen health care should be the basis for various other treatments and health care measures. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a special oxygen therapy method that must be implemented with the help of large special equipment.

Oxygen inhalation can quickly relieve acute and chronic ischemia and hypoxia in various clinical departments and secondary damage caused by hypoxia, and play a role in treating diseases and restoring health. Proper oxygen inhalation can also improve microcirculation, reduce respiratory system load, myocardial load and other effects. Therefore, oxygen therapy and oxygen health care have an irreplaceable important role and broad development prospects.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a treatment method that provides successful results in many diseases by increasing the oxygen levels in the blood and tissues. It is an evidence-based treatment method, which is based on the intermittent breathing of 100% pure oxygen at high pressures for the patient who is taken into the pressure chamber, and its effectiveness has been scientifically demonstrated by numerous studies.

How is Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy applied?
After the patients are taken into the pressure chamber, the pressure of the environment is increased in a controlled and slow manner. Oxygen is administered under high pressure, often by mask. When necessary due to the clinical conditions of the patients, oxygen can also be administered with a cap or an endotracheal tube. The duration and number of sessions are planned by evaluating the existing diseases of the patients. One or more sessions per day can be applied.
How is Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Planned?
The number, duration and frequency of HBOT sessions vary according to the existing diseases and clinical conditions of the patients. An HBOT session usually  lasts 90-120 minutes  . In some diseases, such as stress disease, this period is prolonged. The total number of sessions applied varies for each patient. While some patients are discharged after a few sessions, treatment can be applied up to 80 sessions in some diseases such as chronic osteomyelitis. Patients are followed closely in terms of their complaints, evaluated in terms of continuation or termination of treatment, and session planning is made.
In Which Diseases Is Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Applied?
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy treats skin, subcutaneous and bone tissue, such as non-healing wounds, diabetic foot infections (foot wounds of diabetics), avascular necrosis (death of bone tissue due to malnutrition), chronic osteomyelitis (bone infections) and burns where oxygenation in the tissues is reduced or completely eliminated. It can be applied in many diseases of interest. The applications performed in patients undergoing tissue repairs (tissue patches) with grafts and flaps show a supportive and accelerated effect.Patients with sudden hearing loss and sudden vision loss are also patient groups in which hyperbaric oxygen therapy is effective. In addition to these, hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases oxygenation in tissues in many different diseases such as carbon monoxide poisoning and wounds developed after radiotherapy; On the other hand, it shows significant effects by shrinking the gas bubbles with the effect of high pressure in decompression sickness and gas embolism.

  • sudden hearing loss
  • osteonecrosis
  • radiation necroses
  • Suspicious skin flaps and grafts
  • Chronic Osteomyelitis
  • Acute osteomyelitis of skull bones, sternum and vertebrae
  • Conditions where wound healing is delayed (diabetic and non-diabetic)
  • Crush injuries, compartment syndrome and other acute traumatic ischemias
  • thermal burns
  • Decompression sickness (highlight)
  • Air or gas embolism
  • Carbon monoxide, cyanide poisoning, acute smoke inhalation
  • gas gangrene
  • Necrotizing infections of soft tissue (subcutaneous, muscle, fascia)
  • Retinal Artery Occlusion (Sudden Vision Loss)
  • anoxic encephalopathy
  • brain abscess

There are many diseases that research continues.

How many sessions does hyperbaric oxygen therapy take?
Since the existing diseases and clinical conditions of the patients are different, the total number of sessions applied differs for each patient. While some patients are discharged after a few sessions, treatment can be applied up to 80 sessions in some diseases such as chronic osteomyelitis.
What do patients feel during hyperbaric oxygen therapy?
In the first minutes of the treatment, which we call ‘diving’, patients feel the increase in pressure inside their ears, similar to the landing in an airplane journey. In the meantime, patients equalize the pressure in the ear with some movements such as swallowing. Our patients are informed in detail about how they can easily equalize the middle ear pressure to the external environment pressure. Thanks to the television and voice communication system in our single pressure rooms, they do not feel lonely.
Is it possible to communicate with the patient during the treatment?
Our pressure chambers are made of semi-acrylic, approximately 1 meter of transparent, pressure-resistant acrylic material, and our patients can be followed visually and audibly with the sound system mounted on the device throughout the entire treatment session. During the entire treatment, our patients are followed individually by the pressure room operator with an automatic warning system.
Can the patient terminate the treatment at any time?
In terms of the effectiveness of the treatment, the physician is consulted and a decision is made regarding the continuation or termination of the treatment. In an emergency, our patients can be removed from the pressure chamber within minutes.
Is disease duration important for hyperbaric oxygen therapy?
The timing of the treatment is very important in patients undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In patients with very successful results when applied in the early period, the chance of success decreases when the treatment is delayed. Therefore, patients should apply or be directed to Underwater Medicine and Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment Centers in the early period.
What are the Benefits of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy?
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy acts through many different mechanisms. As a result of treatment, oxygen levels in the blood and tissues increase. It shows antiedema effect. The production of many substances that provide wound healing increases. It supports the cells that play a role in the body’s defense, and prevents the reproduction of some bacteria.

It is applied in many diseases such as sudden hearing loss, sudden vision loss, avascular necrosis known as the death of bone tissue, bone infections, non-healing wounds, diabetic foot infections, wounds due to vascular occlusion, burns, tissue patches, radiotherapy, that is, wounds resulting from radiation therapy. Successful responses are obtained with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for crushing, rupture-type injuries that occur as a result of natural disasters such as traffic accidents, home-work accidents, and earthquakes.

 

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy; It also provides an effective treatment for wounds and tissue loss that occur after botox and filler injections, surgeries and hair transplant operations applied for cosmetic purposes.

 

Decompression sickness, which develops as a result of rapid pressure changes during diving and is also known as blast, carbon monoxide poisoning, generally known as stove and geyser poisoning, and anoxic encephalopathy, which occurs as a result of lack of oxygen in the brain, are diseases that require oxygen to heal.

What are the Side Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy?
In terms of the effectiveness of the treatment, the physician is consulted and a decision is made regarding the continuation or termination of the treatment. In an emergency, our patients can be removed from the pressure chamber within minutes.
Sudden Hearing Loss can be healed with Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy?
Sudden hearing loss is a disease that develops in less than 3 days and   can be diagnosed with audiometry, that is, a  hearing test . Although the exact cause of the disease is not known, it is suggested that it may be caused by different reasons such as vascular and circulatory problems, infections and immune system diseases. The earlier the treatment is started, the higher the chance of success.

 

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is thought to improve hearing impaired due to ischemia, that is, decreased blood supply, by increasing oxygen in the inner ear. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy is effective by improving inner ear metabolism, increasing oxygenation and solving edema.

 

It has been shown that successful results are obtained in cases treated within the first month following the development of sudden hearing loss. The aim is to prevent permanent damage to the inner ear.

Is Avascular Necrosis treated with Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy?
Avascular or  aseptic necrosis  is defined as the death of bone tissue due to malnutrition. It is often seen in the head of the thigh bone in the leg. Although less common, it can also develop in different parts of the body such as arms, knees, wrists and feet.

 

Patients usually present with complaints of pain and limitation of movement. Although the exact cause of the disease is not known, it develops due to decreased blood supply in the bone and thus oxygenation.

 

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is effective by increasing oxygenation, especially in patients with early-stage avascular necrosis. It has been reported that 93% of patients who received HBOT in the early stage stopped the progression of the disease or completely recovered.

What does Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in case of Radiation Necroses?
Radiation necrosis is an undesirable effect that occurs after a short or long time in some patients receiving radiotherapy. It may occur with different complaints depending on the area where radiotherapy is applied, the dose of radiotherapy and the patient’s own characteristics.

 

The nutrition and oxygenation of the radiotherapy treated area decreases and it gains a more sensitive feature. The self-healing abilities of these regions also decrease. Even minor traumas can cause death in these tissues.

 

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy helps to eliminate the negative effects of radiotherapy on different tissues such as intestines, bladder, skin, brain tissue, genital organs and bone tissue. This increases the oxygen levels of the tissues and supports the formation of new capillaries.

 

 

Suspected Involvement Skin Flaps and Grafts

Skin graft and flap applications are one of the surgical operations that are frequently applied in the treatment of non-healing and problematic wounds. It is also known as ” skin patch surgeries ” among the people . The success rate of these operations may be low in people with circulatory disorders, especially diabetes patients and patients with vascular occlusion.

Low oxygen levels prevent healing in grafts and flaps that are suspected to be involved. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly increases the success rate of graft and flap operations with its effect of supporting circulation and increasing tissue oxygen. It is applied to prepare the wound area before the operation and to accelerate the healing after the operation.

Chronic Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis is a progressive infection of bone tissue resulting in bone death. Chronic osteomyelitis  is defined as the long-term chronicity of this infection due to inadequate treatment. The disease can persist for months or even years.

In the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis, drug applications , wound care and, when necessary, surgical interventions, as well as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) significantly increase the chance of success. Studies have reported success rates of up to 90% with HBOT.

HBOT provides many different, beneficial effects in patients with chronic osteomyelitis. It accelerates wound healing, increases the oxygen level in the bone tissue, increases the effect of some antibiotics and helps the lesion area to get better blood.HBOT is performed in patients with chronic osteomyelitis as well as in some patients with acute osteomyelitis. It provides successful results in the healing of bone and wound area in spine, skull bones and sternum infections.

Are there any conditions where wound healing is delayed?
Factors that prevent the healing of tissues such as diabetes, vascular occlusion, circulatory failure and radiation therapy delay the closure of wounds and eventually lead to non-healing, “problematic” wounds. Chronic, that  is, long-term non-healing wounds  require the cooperation of many different areas of expertise. In addition to wound care, drug treatments, surgical interventions, providing sufficient oxygen to the wound area is one of the important factors for healing.chronic wounds is hypoxic, meaning the oxygen level is low. Especially in patients with diabetes and circulation problems, it is not possible to deliver sufficient oxygen to the wound area. Bacteria that “love an oxygen-free environment” (anaerobic) reproduce in oxygen-free tissues, and these bacteria lead to the development of infection in the scar tissue. With hyperbaric oxygen therapy, it is possible to increase the oxygen levels in the scar tissue to levels sufficient for healing. While the partial pressure of oxygen is 5-20 mmHg in an unhealed wound under normal conditions, this value can reach 1000-1700 mmHg with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

 

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy also contributes to the healing of chronic wounds by increasing collagen synthesis, supporting healthy bone tissue and blood circulation, and increasing the effect of some antibiotics.

Can HBOT help with Crush Injuries, Compartment Syndrome and Other Acute Traumatic Ischemia?
After accidents and disasters such as traffic accidents, trauma, earthquakes, blood flow in the tissues decreases due to crushing, compression and long-term inactivity. When tissues and organs cannot be supplied with sufficient blood and oxygen, the process results in ” necrosis “, that is, death. Edema in these tissues is an important problem that prevents healing. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) provides a highly successful antiedema effect. By reducing edema, increasing oxygen levels and supporting circulation, HBOT prevents tissue damage and tissue death, especially in ischemic wounds resulting from motor vehicle accidents, gunshot injuries, dents, tight plaster and bandage applications.
Thermal Burns treated with Hyperbaric oxygen therapy?
Burn it is tissue damage that develops due to various physical and chemical factors such as electric current, heat, radiation. Burns are classified into 4 grades according to their width and depth:

  • First degree burns: These are superficial burns. Often seen as sunburns and hot water burns. It heals without a trace.
  • Second-degree burns: These are deeper burns. It is very painful. Fluid-filled bubbles (bullae) form on the skin. It heals in a longer time and leaving a scar.
  • Third-degree burns: It involves all layers of the skin and also affects the subcutaneous tissue. Sweat glands and hair follicles are also damaged. The skin loses its elasticity. It takes a very long time to heal and heals by leaving an intense scar.
  • Fourth degree burns: The burn has reached deep organs such as bone tissue.
  • While mild burns can be treated on an outpatient basis, patients who develop severe burns may require hospitalization. The aim of the treatment is to control edema, to prevent tissue loss by providing adequate oxygen, to prevent the spread of damage, to reduce the risk of infection, to accelerate wound healing and to protect patients against organ failure.

 

During hyperbaric oxygen therapy, oxygen levels increase, and it is possible to provide sufficient oxygen to the tissues with the vasoconstrictor and edema-reducing effect. With its anti-inflammatory effect, it blocks the inflammatory response cascade that develops as a result of burns.

 

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be applied in burns involving more than 20% of the body surface, burns accompanied by carbon monoxide poisoning and major trauma, electrical burns, burns of the hand, face, perineum, burns affecting the respiratory tract, and burns in risky patients.

 

Frostbites are also included in thermal injuries. It is a dull  hypothermia  trauma. Blood circulation is impaired due to severe narrowing of the vessels. Tissues are damaged both as a result of poor circulation and insufficient oxygenation, and during rewarming. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy offers an effective treatment method for frostbite or frostbite injuries as well as hot burns.

Can HBOT help with Decompression Sickness (Highlight illness)?
Decompression sickness is also known as “hijack”. It is a diving disease that develops depending on diving time, depth, ascent speed and some personal factors. While the nitrogen gas dissolved in the blood rises to the surface during diving, it cannot be discharged sufficiently, causing air bubbles to form in the veins and body tissues. While it can progress with mild symptoms, it can also present with life-threatening severe pictures.

The disease is examined in 2 types:

 

Type 1 Decompression Disease:  It is a mild decompression disease with joint pain and skin findings.

Type 2 Decompression Disease: It progresses  with more severe symptoms. It can cause death by affecting the circulatory, respiratory and nervous systems.

The main treatment method for decompression sickness is hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In case of any doubt, the Underwater Medicine and Hyperbaric Medicine Specialist should be contacted immediately, and the patient should be transferred to the nearest center with a pressure chamber under appropriate conditions.

Is Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy treating Air or Gas Embolism?
Gas embolism is a disease that occurs as a result of the entry of air or another gas into the circulatory system, with mild or severe symptoms depending on the volume of the gas and the area of ​​obstruction. It may develop during surgical procedures or due to diving. Asthma, COPD and some diseases that cause adhesions in the lungs can increase the risk of gas embolism. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the main treatment method in gas embolisms. The patient should be transferred to the pressure chamber under appropriate conditions and the treatment should be started without wasting time. The success of treatment increases in patients who are treated early.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning treated with HBOT?
Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and poisonous gas. It occurs as a result of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing materials. Generally, stove and water heater poisoning develop due to smoke exposure and inhalation of exhaust gas during fire. Depending on the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning, it may progress with mild symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, fatigue, headache, and dizziness, as well as symptoms resulting in loss of consciousness, cardiac arrest and death.

 

Carbon monoxide gas binds to hemoglobin in the blood, which carries oxygen to the tissues 200-240 times more than oxygen. As a result of insufficient oxygen transport to the tissues by hemoglobin, many different signs and symptoms occur.

 

The course of the disease varies depending on the exposure time, the carbon monoxide concentration, the time of initiation of the treatment and the method of oxygen therapy administration. Children, the elderly, pregnant women, people with certain chronic diseases and people who have consumed alcohol are in the higher risk group.

The basis of treatment is based on breathing oxygen to the patient. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the main treatment method in severe poisoning and risky patients.

 

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy rapidly removes carbon monoxide from hemoglobin. It ensures the dissolution of a high amount of oxygen in the blood and the transport of sufficient oxygen to the tissues.

HBOT for Gas Gangrene and Other Necrotizing Infections?
Necrotizing infections are uncommon but life-threatening infectious diseases that impair quality of life. It can develop after foreign bodies, surgical interventions or trauma, or it can occur without any known reason. Patients usually have a risk factor such as cancer, diabetes and immune system disease. In the early period following the injury, pain, edema, a crackling sound on touch, and a rather foul-smelling discharge can be seen.

 

The common feature of these infections is hypoxia, that is, oxygen deficiency. It has been shown that the course of the disease is positively affected and the chance of success increases with hyperbaric oxygen therapy applied in addition to medical and surgical treatments. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases the oxygen level, creating an unsuitable environment for bacterial growth. It enhances the effect of some antibiotics and supports the body’s immune system functions.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy helping Retinal Artery Occlusion (Sudden vision loss) healing?
The retina, which is the main layer of the eye related to visual function, is the tissue with the highest oxygen consumption in our body. Therefore, insufficient oxygen levels can cause rapid damage to the retina, leading to impaired vision. Any obstruction in the retinal vessel feeding the eye and its branches can cause sudden vision loss. This type of vision loss occurs suddenly and painlessly. Depending on the severity of the obstruction, there may be partial vision loss or it may be seen as total vision loss.

Some diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and heart valve diseases may   also increase the risk of retinal artery occlusions. After the examination by ophthalmologists, the patients are diagnosed with a definite diagnosis, drug treatments are arranged and they are referred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy as soon as possible.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases the oxygen level in the retinal tissue where blood supply is impaired, and ensures the preservation of the vitality and functions of the retina. Patients diagnosed with sudden vision loss due to retinal artery occlusion  should apply to a center with a pressure chamber as soon as possible.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for Anoxic Encephalopathy?
Anoxic encephalopathy is a neurological picture that develops as a result of impaired oxygenation of the brain. It can occur for different reasons such as trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, suffocation or poisoning. Brain tissue is one of the tissues most sensitive to lack of oxygen in our body. When the oxygenation of the brain stops, consciousness disappears after 10 seconds and brain damage develops in a short time.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy allows oxygen to reach the deoxygenated areas of the brain by increasing the level of oxygen dissolved in the brain tissue and reducing cerebral edema in anoxic encephalopathy. Patients should be treated as soon as possible, and care should be taken not to interrupt the patient’s other treatments and intensive care needs during hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Frequently Asked Questions about Pre-Cure

What is "not sick"?
“Pre-disease” means “disease has not yet completed”. In layman’s terms, it refers to a disease that may occur in the future. It is “a state of the human body in which a cause exists in the body but has not yet caused a disease”, which is the early stage of the disease. However, with the development of traditional Chinese medicine theory, combined with In clinical practice, the concept of not being ill has been continuously expanded, and it has included the period of no disease, the period of wanting to be ill, the period of “preventing disease after disease”, and the period of preventing relapse after recovery. These are called “preventive” states. “Not sick” is a relative concept, not all sick.
What is "preventive treatment"?
To cure a disease before it is to take care of your physique, enhance your ability to resist disease, prevent it before it happens, and let a doctor help you find a way to avoid getting sick less often. The ancients said: “It is better to take nourishment before there is no disease than to seek treatment after the disease.”
What common constitutions are included in the TCM constitution classification?
According to the difference in the rise and fall of yin, yang, qi and blood in various groups of people, the response to pathogenic factors and the same incidence threshold, the constitution of traditional Chinese medicine divides common constitutions into nine types: peaceful, qi-deficiency, yang-deficiency, yin-deficiency, blood Blood stasis, phlegm-dampness, damp-heat, qi stagnation, and special qualities.
Why carry out the work of "preventive treatment"? What are the benefits of "preventive treatment"?
The purpose of medicine is not only to treat disease, but more importantly, to keep you from getting sick. The original intention of “preventive treatment” is to help you maintain your body in a better and healthier state through individualized and specific guidance from professionals.
What does the concept of "preventive treatment" include?
The specific content of the concept of “preventing disease” includes four aspects: (1) Health care before disease, disease prevention first: refers to prevention before disease, and avoiding the occurrence of disease is the fundamental; Before there are no obvious symptoms, measures should be taken to treat the disease at the beginning, so as to avoid more and more symptoms; (4) Adjust the camera after the recovery to prevent its recurrence: It refers to the time when the disease is recovering, the righteousness is still deficient, the evil is nostalgic, the body is in an unstable state, and the body function has not fully recovered.
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy helping Retinal Artery Occlusion (Sudden vision loss) healing?
The retina, which is the main layer of the eye related to visual function, is the tissue with the highest oxygen consumption in our body. Therefore, insufficient oxygen levels can cause rapid damage to the retina, leading to impaired vision. Any obstruction in the retinal vessel feeding the eye and its branches can cause sudden vision loss. This type of vision loss occurs suddenly and painlessly. Depending on the severity of the obstruction, there may be partial vision loss or it may be seen as total vision loss.

Some diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and heart valve diseases may   also increase the risk of retinal artery occlusions. After the examination by ophthalmologists, the patients are diagnosed with a definite diagnosis, drug treatments are arranged and they are referred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy as soon as possible.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases the oxygen level in the retinal tissue where blood supply is impaired, and ensures the preservation of the vitality and functions of the retina. Patients diagnosed with sudden vision loss due to retinal artery occlusion  should apply to a center with a pressure chamber as soon as possible.

Who needs "preventive treatment"?
In the classic work of traditional Chinese medicine “The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine”, the “preventive treatment of diseases” refers to the personal preventive health care emphasized by modern medicine. In fact, health is the strong desire of everyone, and a good body needs constant maintenance and scientific maintenance.
Do healthy people also need to "prevent illness"?
Yes, only about 5% of the world’s population can meet the World Health Organization’s health standards; they also need to constantly recuperate and maintain their health.
Who most urgently needs "preventive treatment"?
I often feel uncomfortable, and the physical examination reveals that some indicators are slightly abnormal.
Sub-health is the main population of "pre-treatment"?
The sub-health population accounts for about 70% (75%) of the global population. These people are often a little uncomfortable, but not diagnosed. If it continues to develop, it is likely to develop into a disease. Timely “treating before the disease”, and strive to block the development of the disease.
What are the symptoms of sub-healthy sleep?
Sub-healthy sleep symptoms include dry eyes, body pain, tinnitus, dizziness, headache, nocturia, loose stools, constipation, decreased diet, abdominal distension, dry throat, spontaneous sweating, night sweats, forgetfulness, palpitations, insomnia, premenstrual breast distention, Menstrual disorders, excessive vaginal discharge, itchy skin, lethargy, chills, loose teeth, weakness of lower limbs, etc.
After a serious illness is cured, it is necessary to "prevent the illness"?
After a serious illness is cured and discharged from the hospital, the physique is usually weak, and more attention should be paid to the treatment of the disease. Recuperate under the guidance of specialist doctors to prevent recurrence of old diseases and new diseases.
How does a doctor "prevent the disease"?
“Treatment” in the treatment of pre-disease means to control, recuperate, intervene, and maintain health. The relative lack of health knowledge, and very few people can have a private health practitioner, then let the “Prevention Center” help you to develop and implement a health management plan that is specifically suitable for you.
From what perspectives does "preventive treatment" provide intervention and recuperation?
It mainly includes the aspects of staying away from risk factors, emotional health, diet, daily life, exercise, traditional Chinese medicine intervention and non-drug therapy intervention.
Do I need to be hospitalized for injections and medicines for "preventive treatment"?
Unnecessary. Pre-treatment is to carry out physical recuperation and health care by yourself under the guidance and help of a doctor. Your health is yours.
What is Oxygen Therapy?
Treating people according to people, applying oxygen therapy in a reasonable and standard way, improving the hypoxic state of different degrees in sub-healthy people, “prevention before disease” and health care, we call it oxygen therapy to treat disease before disease.
What is saturated oxygen?
Saturated oxygen inhalation refers to the oxygen inhalation method in which patients receive high-flow pure oxygen inhalation with the help of closed oxygen inhalation masks and special breathing circuits. The distinctive feature of saturated oxygen inhalation is that it has the characteristics of oxygen inhalation and oxygen supply during treatment in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber. In the state of saturated oxygen inhalation, the physical dissolved oxygen in the patient’s body was significantly higher than that of ordinary nasal obstruction or nasal cannula oxygen inhalation.  Saturated oxygen has broad and narrow senses. In a broad sense, saturated oxygen inhalation can be divided into atmospheric saturated oxygen inhalation and high-pressure saturated oxygen inhalation according to the different environments in which oxygen is inhaled, the latter being “hyperbaric oxygen”. What we usually call saturated oxygen absorption refers to atmospheric saturated oxygen absorption, which is discussed in a “narrow sense”.
What is saturated oxygen acupuncture?
Saturation oxygen inhalation acupuncture is a new clinical treatment method created by me, which is a superimposed fusion of traditional Chinese and Western medicine treatment methods and has the characteristics of integrated innovation. The sequential and combined treatment method of saturated oxygen inhalation within half an hour after acupuncture or at the same time as acupuncture treatment is called saturated oxygen inhalation acupuncture therapy (referred to as oxygen acupuncture therapy).
What are the characteristics of saturated oxygen acupuncture?
The biggest feature of saturated oxygen acupuncture therapy lies in the sequential superposition of acupuncture and oxygen therapy. Applying acupuncture before entering the cabin, the patient enters the cabin with acupuncture, or receives acupuncture treatment at the same time as saturated oxygen inhalation, which can make the hyperbaric oxygen/atmospheric saturated oxygen inhalation and acupuncture to form a good synergy and amplification effect on the adjustment and treatment of the body . On the basis of maximizing the effect of oxygen therapy, acupuncture’s meridian adjustment effect is strengthened; and acupuncture’s meridian-qi stimulation can promote the body’s full utilization of oxygen. The two complement each other, and the effect is amplified, 1+1>2.
What diseases can be treated by saturated oxygen inhalation acupuncture?
Patients and diseases that are suitable for ordinary acupuncture therapy and have no contraindications to high-flow pure oxygen inhalation can be considered for selection and acceptance of saturated oxygen inhalation acupuncture therapy. Saturation oxygen inhalation acupuncture has particularly prominent advantages in the treatment of diseases closely related to ischemia and hypoxia.

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